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By Henepola Gunaratana

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As long as such doubt persists, the mind is too obscured by confusion to embark on the path leading to higher attainments. 3 Now that we have determined the purport of the phrase “unwholesome states of mind” to be the five hindrances, we must inquire into the meaning of the word “seclusion” (viveka). 4 These three terms allude to two distinct sets of exegetical categories, which must be considered to bring their meaning to light. The first two terms pertain to a threefold arrangement made up of bodily seclusion, mental seclusion, and “seclusion from the substance” (upadhi viveka).

E. the subjective desire for sensual enjoyment itself. According to the commentator the phrase “quite secluded from sense pleasures” serves to show that to attain the first jhāna the yogin must remove himself from sense pleasures, the first hindrance and its objective basis. The need for such separation is dictated by two considerations: first by the fact that sense pleasures are the “enemy” or contrary opposite of the first jhāna, which cannot exist in their presence “just as lamplight cannot exist as long as darkness exists”; and second by the fact that sense pleasures have to be 1.

The Book of the Kindred Sayings (Sa yutta-Nikāya) or Grouped Suttas. [Pt. 1: Kindred Sayings with verses (Sagatha-Vagga), translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids assisted by Sūriyagoda Suma gala Thera; pt. 2: The Nidāna Book (Nidāna-Vagga), translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids assisted by F. L. Woodward; pt. 3: translated by F. L. Woodward and edited by Mrs. Rhys Davids; pt. 4: translated by F. L. Woodward with an Introduction by Mrs. Rhys Davids; pt. 5. (Mahā-Vagga), translated by F. L. Woodward with an Introduction by Mrs.

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A Critical Analysis of the Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation by Henepola Gunaratana


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