By Amalia Levanoni
This article bargains with the method of decline of the Mameluk country (1250-1517). Its major thesis is that the origins of this approach are to be present in the 3rd reign of al-Nasir Muhammad Ibn Qalawun, and extra in particular within the alterations he effected within the Mameluk procedure. The Mameluk military used to be the 1st to be faced with those alterations, whose impression at the social and political lifetime of the Mameluk elite was once already felt in the course of al-Nasir's lifetime. this article follows the advancements to the tip of self sufficient Mameluk rule and divulges the transformation they wrought within the Mameluk code of values and political suggestions. a last bankruptcy bargains with the general monetary decline of the Mameluk country and establishes the hyperlink of its a variety of reasons - demographic decline, financial crises, the cave in of agriculture and - with Mameluk executive misrule. the belief is reached that it was once al-Nasir's expenditure coverage and its repercussions at the financial reform which display his reign as some extent of no go back.
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Extra resources for A Turning Point in Mamluk History: The Third Reign of Al-Nasir Muhammad Ibn Qalawun (1310-1341)
324, 325; Zetterstéen, pp. 164165; al-Nuwayri, 19B, fol. 117b; Sulük, 2, p. 376; 'Iqd, A2912/4, fol. 342; Wâfi, 10, p. 299; al-Yüsufî, p. 212. 56 Al-Shujâcï, p. 222. 57 Wäfi, 10, p. 285; al-Yüsufî, p. 212; Durar, 3, p. 343; Ibn al-Dawädäri, 9, p. 366; Sulük, 2, p. 352, also pp. 376, 378; Zetterstéen, p. 188; Nujüm, 9, p. 103. According to al-Safadfs version, Baljak was the son of Qawsün's sister. 58 Al-Shujâcï, p. 33. 59 Sulük, 2, pp. 118, 338, 391, 562, 733-734; Nujüm, 10, p. 8; 12, p. 349; al-Shujä'i, pp.
19. 113 Ibn al-Furät, 7, p. 90; Sulük, 1, p. 640. See, for example, Wäfi, 9, p. 486. 1,4 Ibn al-Şuqâ£I, p. 133. 115 Sanjar al-Shujâcï was discharged from his office after a long service on account of extortion and taking bribes, Zubda, fol. 162a; Wäfi, 15, pp. 475-478; Sulük, 1, p. 802; Nujüm, 8, pp. 51-52. 116 Zubda, fols. 100b, 166b; Tuhfa, p. 92; al-Nuwayri, 20, fols. 2a-b; 2N, fol. 45a. 117 Zubda, fols. 103b, 105a, 166b; Sulük, 1, pp. 672, 755; al-Nuwayri, 20, fol. 3a; 2N, fol. 45a; Tadhkira, 1, p.
Awe-inspiring, who had a compelling presence, tremendous control, and who commanded great respect from the mamluks. He was highly respected by the kings and amirs, and only seldom was there a mamluk amir of al-Zähir, al-Sacïd and al-Manşür that Tawäshi Mukhtaşş had not either struck, cursed, or tried. "77 It was said of Shihäb al-Dïn Fäkhir (or Qäjir) al-Manşürî who filled the same post, that "he commanded respect and great influence among the Royal Mamluks. Veteran mamluks respected him and junior mamluks feared him.
A Turning Point in Mamluk History: The Third Reign of Al-Nasir Muhammad Ibn Qalawun (1310-1341) by Amalia Levanoni