By Rick Ruddell
Ruddell examines the political, cultural, and social elements that contributed to the expansion in incarceration within the usa from 1952 to 2000. Controlling for the impacts of monetary tension, violent crime, unemployment, direct outlays for assistance, the proportion of inhabitants that's black, and the proportion of men elderly 15 to 29 years, Ruddell stories the affects of political disaffection, civic disengagement, and social disruption on grownup imprisonment tendencies. The findings supply proof of the relationships among raises within the use of punishment and cultural or political values. the implications additionally aid the proposition that using punishment is an inherently complicated and political method.
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Additional resources for America Behind Bars: Trends in Imprisonment, 1950-2000 (Criminal Justice, Recent Scholarship)
Collectively, these events reduced public trust in political institutions and respondents in national surveys expressed pessimism about their future prospects (Putnam, 2000). Despite the fact that several million 18 to 20 year-olds were added to the voting rolls, eligible voter turnout decreased, signifying a reduction in formal political participation. Throughout this era, respondents to a number of national surveys reported increasing alienation and distrust of governments. For instance, in 1958 forty-three percent of respondents in the National Elections Study (NES) survey reported that “a lot” of the people in government waste tax money.
Langan and Levin (2002) estimated that prisoners released in 2000, for instance, served approximately 55 percent of their sentence in prison. 5 years of that sentence (Langan and Levin, 2002). There is some evidence to suggest that the percentage of timeserved is variable, but depends on era examined (see Langan, 1991). ” One possible reason for the increases in the length of sentence served is the introduction of truth in sentencing (TIS) legislation. ” Consequently, there was a movement to enact legislation that would hold offenders for a greater percentage of their prison term.
The 1970s were also characterized with increasing economic stress in the forms of inflation, rising consumer and corporate bankruptcies, increasing labor problems, unstable levels of employment, and the transformation from an industrial to a service economy. In the span of a few years Gallup Poll respondents identified the most important problem facing America as domestic issues, in sharp contrast to the focus on foreign policy that had dominated American interest since World War 2 (Putnam, 2000).
America Behind Bars: Trends in Imprisonment, 1950-2000 (Criminal Justice, Recent Scholarship) by Rick Ruddell