By John S. Gilkeson
This publication examines the intersection of cultural anthropology and American cultural nationalism from 1886, whilst Franz Boas left Germany for the USA, until eventually 1965, while the nationwide Endowment for the arts used to be demonstrated. 5 chapters hint the advance inside educational anthropology of the suggestions of tradition, social category, nationwide personality, price, and civilization, and their dissemination to non-anthropologists. As americans got here to consider tradition anthropologically, as a "complex complete" a long way broader and extra inclusive than Matthew Arnold's "the top which has been proposal and said," so, too, did they arrive to work out American groups as stratified into social periods unique by means of their subcultures; to characteristic the making of the yank personality to socialization instead of delivery; to find the uniqueness of yankee tradition in its subconscious canons of selection; and to view American tradition and civilization in a world point of view.
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Extra resources for Anthropologists and the Rediscovery of America, 1886-1965
36 Anthropologists and the Rediscovery of America Boas’s students were dismayed by his reluctance to popularize anthropology. Robert Lowie complained about Boas’s failure to develop many subjects at greater length in The Mind of Primitive Man or to provide a ‘‘solid base of elementary fact’’ in a textbook. ’’ Boas, who, Alfred Kroeber thought, took culture ‘‘as given,’’ waited until 1930 to issue his first formal definition of culture. ’’71 67 68 69 70 71 Robert H. Lowie, review of The Mind of Primitive Man, American Journal of Sociology 17 (1912): 835; Robert H.
L. Kroeber, ‘‘Eighteen Professions,’’ American Anthropologist 17 (1915): 283–288. 72 Neither psychology nor ‘‘social differences’’ (race) nor physical environment, Lowie added, could explain culture. ’’73 Although all the Boasians agreed upon the significance of culture, they disagreed over its ontological status. Alfred Kroeber famously viewed culture as a ‘‘superorganic’’ phenomenon. ’’74 Edward Sapir and Alexander Goldenweiser, however, refused to consider culture apart from individuals who embodied it.
O. 37 In their search for a usable past and an organic culture, American intellectuals were looking for a conception of culture that would bridge the gap between inherited, largely European, ideals of culture and actual American conditions by focusing attention on the indigenous and the commonplace. Emanating from university seminars, this new conception of culture would reflect the increasing specialization and academic institutionalization of 33 34 35 36 37 Rupert Brooks, quoted in Ann Douglas, Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (New York: Farrar, 1995), 159; Claudia Stokes, Writers in Retrospect: The Rise of American Literary History, 1875–1910 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006), 22; Shumway, Creating American Civilization, 25.
Anthropologists and the Rediscovery of America, 1886-1965 by John S. Gilkeson