By Fangming Jin
This bookreviews the new advances in hydrothermal conversion of biomass into chemical substances and fuels, and includes 15 chapters. It introduces the homes of high-temperature water, the benefits of hydrothermal conversion of biomass, and a few novel hydrothermal conversion strategies, customarily together with hydrothermal creation of value-added items, hydrothermal gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization. This ebook introduces a brand new inspiration for counteracting the imbalance within the carbon cycle, that's because of the swift intake of fossil fuels in anthropogenic actions together with the sluggish formation of fossil fuels. therefore, the ebook comes in handy in conveying a primary knowing of hydrothermal conversion of biomass within the carbon cycle in order that a contribution might be made to reaching sustainable power and setting. it's also fascinating to a large readership in numerous fields together with chemical, geologic and environmental technology and engineering.
Fangming Jin is a individual Professor on the tuition of Environmental technological know-how & Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong collage, China
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Extra resources for Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion
Nature 383(6598):313–318 26 F. Jin et al. 82. Gomez-Briceno D, Blazquez F, Saez-Maderuelo A (2013) Oxidation of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic alloys in supercritical water. J Supercrit Fluids 78:103–113 83. Townsend SH, Abraham MA, Huppert GL, Klein MT, Paspek SC (1988) Solvent effects during reactions in supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 27(1):143–149 84. Marrone PA, Gschwend PM, Swallow KC, Peters WA, Tester JW (1998) Product distribution and reaction pathways for methylene chloride hydrolysis and oxidation under hydrothermal conditions.
It needs another 38 min for the reactor to reach 300 °C and become stable. For the smaller tube reactor (see Fig. 3b), the time required to raise the temperature of reaction medium from 20 to 300 °C was about 15 s, which was faster than the former one. Therefore, the real reaction time performed in the former reactor was longer than that in the latter because of the heating time difference, although their nominal reaction times were the same. As shown in Fig. 3c, compared with the batch reactors, the continuous flow type reactor can be conducted at low temperatures and very short residence times (less than 1 min).
As shown in Fig. 4, glycolic acid, lactic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid have been detected in the presence of CuO. As illustrated in Fig. 0 %. The conversion of glucose was above 99 %, thus, the yield almost equals the selectivity. 6 % and no formation of lactic acid was observed. This result suggests that CuO had a promotion 38 Y. Wang et al. Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of reactors used. a Batch rector 1: photo and its heating time profile, reproduced from Ref.  by permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd; b Batch reactor 2, reprinted with permission from Ref.
Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion by Fangming Jin