By Alan H. Welch, Kenneth G. Stollenwerk
Presents an outline of the fundamental techniques that impact arsenic incidence and shipping by means of offering enough history details on arsenic geochemistry and outlines of high-arsenic flooring water. Of curiosity to scientists operating within the box of arsenic, future health pros drawn to arsenic publicity, and water-resource managers and regulators.
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Extra info for Arsenic in Ground Water Geochemistry and Occurrence
Spectroscopic Investigations of Arsenic in Solid Phases 33 XPS spectra can be collected from powders or single crystals. The broadscan (low resolution) XPS spectrum, usually spanning ~1,000 eV, shows several peaks corresponding to the elements present in the sample superimposed upon a background. When high resolution (narrow scan) spectra are collected over smaller intervals spanning a peak of interest, a single peak is usually observed to be composed of several peaks. These peaks (called chemical shifts) are due multiple species of a single element present in a sample.
When high resolution (narrow scan) spectra are collected over smaller intervals spanning a peak of interest, a single peak is usually observed to be composed of several peaks. These peaks (called chemical shifts) are due multiple species of a single element present in a sample. Chemical shifts arise from coordinative differences, as in surface vs. bulk atoms, and/or the presence of multiple oxidation states. Peak positions are calibrated by reference to an appropriate standard (usually gold) collected under identical conditions as the sample.
Several spectroscopic methods exist to monitor the electronic, vibrational, and other properties of atoms or molecules localized in the interfacial region. These methods provide information on valence, local coordination, protonation, and other properties that is difficult to obtain by other means. This chapter synthesizes recent infrared, x-ray photoelectron, and x-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of arsenic speciation in natural and synthetic solid phases. The local coordination of arsenic in sulfide minerals, in arsenate and arsenite precipitates, in secondary sulfates and carbonates, adsorbed on iron, manganese, and aluminium hydrous oxides, and adsorbed on aluminosilicate clay minerals is summarized.
Arsenic in Ground Water Geochemistry and Occurrence by Alan H. Welch, Kenneth G. Stollenwerk